14 SEO Formulas Every SEO Professional Should Know

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Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is a field that demands constant monitoring, analysis, and informed decision-making of massive data and numbers of users visiting the website. To understand this amount of users coming on the website often SEO and Analytics experts use SEO formulas to interpret the behavior on the website. In this blog, we will talk about some of these formulas that an SEO professional should know.

1. Bounce Rate

Bounce rate is the percentage of our users who exit the website without any interaction or within 10 seconds. 

Formula: Bounce Rate = (Single Page Visits / Total Visits) * 100

If your website/app has a high bounce rate it might be an indication that you serving poor content, high load time, confusing UI/UX, and not enough CTAs on the website.

Formula for Interacting/Active Users

Percentage of bounce rate calculated by users = Leaving Users, Users – Leaving Users = Interacting Users. Below is a hypothetical example of it. 

38.49% of 5,745 =  2,208.04, 5745 – 2208 = 3537. 

Speaking of interacting users, In the new GA4 model there are introduced a few new metrics such as engagement rate and engaged sessions.

2. Engagement Rate

Engagement rate is impacted by the percentage of users who interact with a web page. Users who do not find the page useful will leave without triggering events (remember that GA4’s data model is event-based). Events such as multiple pageviews clicks on the website, scroll, and goal conversions. Understanding these events would measure the engagement rate of your website/app. This metric is the exact opposite of the bounce rate. 

Formula: Engagement Rate = ((Engaged Sessions) / Sessions) * 100

A high engagement rate signals that your content resonates with your audience. It’s a crucial metric for assessing the effectiveness of your website’s content.

3. Click-Through Rate (CTR)

CTR measures the clicks coming on the website based on the impressions that we are acquiring. Below is the formula for it.

Formula: CTR = (Clicks / Impressions) * 100

How much should your CTR be on average usually varies from Industry to Industry, however, an agreed-upon range of it is between 1.9-2.5%. This number can alter depending on different factors such as trends, the volume of keywords, brand recognition, keywords/content usage on the website, ranking position, and meta tags optimization. 

Generally, SEOs agree that the higher the website ranks on the SERP the higher its CTR going to be. Below is a tabular presentation of it.

Ranking PositionEstimated Average CTR
1| 25% – 30%
2| 15% – 20%
3| 10% – 15%
4| 5% – 10%
5| 3% – 5%
6-10| 2% – 4%
11-20| 1% – 2%
21-30| 0.5% – 1%

But, These are calculated values and can vary on several elements as mentioned above.

4. Keyword Density

Keyword density is a formula to calculate the percentage of times a certain keyword is to be duplicated in a piece of content based on the word count. 

Formula: (Number of Times Keyword Appears / Total Word Count) * 100

Balancing keyword usage is important for SEO. This formula helps guarantee that you’re staying within your content with keywords, which can result in fines from search engines.

5. Conversion Rate

Conversion Rate is calculated by the percentage of visitors coming on the website and conducting a transaction or filling out a contact form.

Formula: Conversion Rate = (Conversions / Total Visitors) * 100

A good conversion rate indicates that the website/app has useful content and UI/UX and it is effectively persuading users to achieve the intended purposes. It’s a key metric for gauging the success of your SEO strategies. To optimize this we generally make sure that the website/app has a list of things such as useful content and UI/UX, so users can effortlessly navigate to the website and finish the journey. The website loads quickly.

6. Dwell Time

Dwell Time calculates the amount of time a user pays on a webpage after clicking on a search result.

Formula: Dwell Time = (Total Time on Page / Number of Visitors)

A longer dwell time suggests that your content is entertaining and valuable to users, potentially increasing your search engine rankings.

7. Pages Per Session

Pages Per Session calculates the average number of pages a visitor sights during a single session on your website.

Formula: Pages Per Session = (Total Pages Viewed / Total Sessions)

Higher pages per session show that users are exploring your site thoroughly, which can lead to boosted engagement and conversions.

8. Return on Investment (ROI)

ROI calculates the profitability of your SEO efforts by comparing the income generated to the cost of those efforts. Such as the number of individuals put on the project based on the revenue they have is calculated by the income/profit the team brings to the project.

Formula: ROI = [(Revenue – Cost of SEO) / Cost of SEO] * 100


Formula: ROI = [(Net Profit from SEO) / Cost of SEO] * 100

Comprehending the ROI of your SEO campaigns aids justify investments and optimize procedures to maximize profitability.

9. Organic Search Traffic

Organic Search Traffic describes the number of visitors who reach at your website through organic (non-paid) search engine results.

Organic search traffic is important for creating a sustainable online presence. It’s generally tracked operating website analytics tools.

10. Page Authority and Domain Authority

These metrics, created by Moz, deliver an estimate of a page’s or domain’s ability to rank in search engine results. They are not estimated with a specific formula but are selected based on different factors such as content quality, backlinks, and user engagement.

Page and domain authority are important for comprehending your site’s competitive position in search engine rankings.

11. Cost Per Click (CPC)

CPC is used in pay-per-click (PPC) advertising to calculate the cost of each click on an ad.

Formula: CPC = (Total Cost of Clicks / Total Clicks)

Comprehending CPC helps control advertising budgets effectively, ensuring you get the most worth from your PPC campaigns.

12. Breadth of Keyword Ranking

This metric assesses the number of various keywords for which a webpage or website ranks in search engine results. It’s often calculated utilizing SEO software.

A wider keyword ranking indicates that your content is relevant and competitive across different search questions.

13. Exit Rate

Exit Rate shows the percentage of visitors who leave your website after viewing a certain page.

Formula: Exit Rate = (Number of Exits from a Page / Total Views of the Page

These are some SEO formulas that as an SEO Specialist you should be conscious of. If I have missed anything or if you would like to share some insights about these blogs.

14. Pageviews

Pageviews calculate the total number of pages viewed on your website. It’s a simple metric tracked in website analytics.

Analyzing pageviews helps determine which pages are the most famous and which might require optimization.

Eram Naim, with 4 years of experience in content marketing and 2 years in digital marketing, currently serves as the Co-Founder and COO of Digitaltreed.com. In addition to his role as COO, he also functions as the Sales & Marketing Manager and Editor, showcasing his versatility and expertise across multiple domains within the company.

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